The Network section of the administrative GUI contains these components for viewing and configuring network settings on the FreeNAS® system:
- Global Configuration: general network settings.
- Interfaces: settings for each network interface.
- IPMI: settings controlling connection to the appliance through the hardware side-band management interface if the graphical user interface becomes unavailable.
- Link Aggregations: settings for network link aggregation and link failover.
- Network Summary: display an overview of the current network settings.
- Static Routes: add static routes.
- VLANs: configure IEEE 802.1q tagging for virtual LANs.
Each of these is described in more detail in this section.
Making changes to the network interface the web interface uses can result in losing connection to the FreeNAS® system! Misconfiguring network settings might require command line knowledge or physical access to the FreeNAS® system to fix. Be very careful when configuring Interfaces and Link Aggregations.
7.1. Global Configuration¶
Figure 7.1.1, is for general network settings that are not unique to any particular network interface., shown in
|Hostname||string||System host name. Cannot contain the underscore character.|
|Domain||string||System domain name.|
|Additional domains||string||Can enter up to 6 space delimited search domains. Adding multiple domains may result in slower DNS lookups.|
|IPv4 Default Gateway||IP address||Typically not set. See this note about Gateways. If set, used instead of default gateway provided by DHCP.|
|IPv6 Default Gateway||IP address||Typically not set. See this note about Gateways.|
|Nameserver 1||IP address||Primary DNS server.|
|Nameserver 2||IP address||Secondary DNS server.|
|Nameserver 3||IP address||Tertiary DNS server.|
|HTTP Proxy||string||Enter the proxy information for the network in the format http://my.proxy.server:3128 or http://user:email@example.com:3128.|
|Enable netwait feature||checkbox||If enabled, network services do not start at boot until the interface is able to ping the addresses listed in the Netwait IP list.|
|Netwait IP list||string||If Enable netwait feature is unset, list of IP addresses to ping. Otherwise, ping the default gateway.|
|Host name database||string||Used to add one entry per line which will be appended to
When using Active Directory, set the IP address of the realm’s DNS server in the Nameserver 1 field.
If the network does not have a DNS server, or NFS, SSH, or FTP users are receiving “reverse DNS” or timeout errors, add an entry for the IP address of the FreeNAS® system in the Host name database field.
In many cases, a FreeNAS® configuration does not include default gateway information as a way to make it more difficult for a remote attacker to communicate with the server. While this is a reasonable precaution, such a configuration does not restrict inbound traffic from sources within the local network. However, omitting a default gateway will prevent the FreeNAS® system from communicating with DNS servers, time servers, and mail servers that are located outside of the local network. In this case, it is recommended to add Static Routes to be able to reach external DNS, NTP, and mail servers which are configured with static IP addresses. When a gateway to the Internet is added, make sure the FreeNAS® system is protected by a properly configured firewall.
shows which interfaces have been manually configured and allows adding or editing a manually configured interface.
Typically, the interface used to access the FreeNAS® administrative GUI is configured by DHCP. This interface does not appear in this screen, even though it is already dynamically configured and in use.
Creating a Link Aggregation that does not include the NIC used to access the FreeNAS® administrative GUI may require adding an Interfaces entry for this interface with DHCP enabled. See this warning about changing the interface that the web interface uses.
Figure 7.2.1 shows the screen that opens on clicking . Table 7.2.1 summarizes the configuration options shown when adding an interface or editing an already configured interface. Note that if any changes to this screen require a network restart, the screen will turn red when the OK button is clicked and a pop-up message will point out that network connectivity to the FreeNAS® system will be interrupted while the changes are applied.
|NIC||drop-down menu||The FreeBSD device name of the interface. This is a read-only field when editing an interface.|
|Interface Name||string||Description of interface.|
|DHCP||checkbox||Requires static IPv4 or IPv6 configuration if unselected. Only one interface can be configured for DHCP.|
|IPv4 Address||IP address||Enter a static IP address if DHCP is unset.|
|IPv4 Netmask||drop-down menu||Enter a netmask if DHCP is unset.|
|Auto configure IPv6||checkbox||Only one interface can be configured for this option. If unset, manual configuration is required to use IPv6.|
|IPv6 Address||IPv6 address||Must be unique on the network.|
|IPv6 Prefix Length||drop-down menu||Match the prefix used on the network.|
|Options||string||Additional parameters from ifconfig(8). Separate multiple parameters with a space. For example: mtu 9000 increases the MTU for interfaces which support jumbo frames (but see this note about MTU and lagg interfaces).|
This screen also provides for the configuration of IP aliases, making it possible for a single interface to have multiple IP addresses. To set multiple aliases, click the Add extra alias link for each alias. Aliases are deleted by clicking the interface in the tree, clicking the Edit button, checking the Delete checkbox below the alias, then clicking the OK button.
Aliases are deleted by checking the Delete checkbox in the alias area, then clicking OK for the interface. Do not click the Delete button at the bottom of this screen, which deletes the entire interface.
Multiple interfaces cannot be members of the same subnet. See Multiple network interfaces on a single subnet for more information. Check the subnet mask if an error is shown when setting the IP addresses on multiple interfaces.
This screen will not allow an interface’s IPv4 and IPv6 addresses to both be set as primary addresses. An error is shown if both the IPv4 address and IPv6 address fields are filled in. Instead, set only one of these address fields and create an alias for the other address.
Beginning with version 9.2.1, FreeNAS® provides a graphical screen for configuring an IPMI interface. This screen will only appear if the system hardware includes a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC).
IPMI provides side-band management if the graphical administrative interface becomes unresponsive. This allows for a few vital functions, such as checking the log, accessing the BIOS setup, and powering on the system without requiring physical access to the system. IPMI is also used to give another person remote access to the system to assist with a configuration or troubleshooting issue. Before configuring IPMI, ensure that the management interface is physically connected to the network. The IPMI device may share the primary Ethernet interface, or it may be a dedicated separate IPMI interface.
It is recommended to first ensure that the IPMI has been patched against the Remote Management Vulnerability before enabling IPMI. This article provides more information about the vulnerability and how to fix it.
Some IPMI implementations require updates to work with newer versions of Java. See PSA: Java 8 Update 131 breaks ASRock’s IPMI Virtual console for more information.
IPMI is configured from Figure 7.3.1, provides a shortcut to the most basic IPMI configuration. Those already familiar with IPMI management tools can use them instead. Table 7.3.1 summarizes the options available when configuring IPMI with the FreeNAS® GUI.. The IPMI configuration screen, shown in
|Channel||drop-down menu||Select the channel to use.|
|Password||string||Enter the password used to connect to the IPMI interface from a web browser. The maximum length is 20 characters.|
|DHCP||checkbox||If left unset, the next three fields must be set.|
|IPv4 Address||string||IP address used to connect to the IPMI web GUI.|
|IPv4 Netmask||drop-down menu||Subnet mask associated with the IP address.|
|IPv4 Default Gateway||string||Default gateway associated with the IP address.|
|VLAN ID||string||Enter the VLAN identifier if the IPMI out-of-band management interface is not on the same VLAN as management networking.|
The Identify Light button can be used to identify a system in a multi-system rack by flashing its IPMI LED light. Clicking this button will present a pop-up with a menu of times, ranging from 15 seconds to 4 minutes, to flash the LED light.
After configuration, the IPMI interface is accessed using a web browser and the IP address specified in the configuration. The management interface prompts for a username and the configured password. Refer to the IPMI device’s documentation to determine the default administrative username.
After logging in to the management interface, the default administrative username can be changed, and additional users created. The appearance of the IPMI utility and the functions that are available vary depending on the hardware.
A command-line utility called ipmitool is available to control many features of the IPMI interface. See How To: Change IPMI Sensor Thresholds using ipmitool for some examples.
7.5. Network Summary¶
shows a quick summary of the addressing information of every configured interface. For each interface name, the configured IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, DNS servers, and default gateway are displayed.
7.6. Static Routes¶
No static routes are defined on a default FreeNAS® system. If a static route is required to reach portions of the network, add the route with Figure 7.6.1., shown in
The available options are summarized in Table 7.6.1.
|Destination network||integer||Use the format A.B.C.D/E where E is the CIDR mask.|
|Gateway||integer||Enter the IP address of the gateway.|
|Description||string||Optional. Add any notes about the route.|
Added static routes are shown in View Static Routes. Click a route’s entry to access the Edit and Delete buttons.
FreeNAS® uses FreeBSD’s vlan(4) interface to demultiplex frames with IEEE 802.1q tags. This allows nodes on different VLANs to communicate through a layer 3 switch or router. A vlan interface must be assigned a parent interface and a numeric VLAN tag. A single parent can be assigned to multiple vlan interfaces provided they have different tags.
VLAN tagging is the only 802.1q feature that is implemented. Additionally, not all Ethernet interfaces support full VLAN processing. See the HARDWARE section of vlan(4) for details.
Click Figure 7.7.1., to see the screen shown in
Table 7.7.1 summarizes the configurable fields.
|Virtual Interface||string||Use the format vlanX where X is a number representing a vlan interface not currently being used as a parent.|
|Parent Interface||drop-down menu||Usually an Ethernet card connected to a properly configured switch port. Newly created Link Aggregations do not appear in the drop-down until the system is rebooted.|
|VLAN Tag||integer||Enter a number between 1 and 4095 which matches a numeric tag set up in the switched network.|
|Priority Code Point||drop-down menu||Available 802.1p Class of Service ranges from Best Effort (default) to Network Control (highest).|
|Description||string||Optional. Enter any notes about this VLAN.|
The parent interface of a VLAN must be up, but it can either have an IP address or be unconfigured, depending upon the requirements of the VLAN configuration. This makes it difficult for the GUI to do the right thing without trampling the configuration. To remedy this, add the VLAN, then select NIC drop-down menu and in the Options field, type up. This will bring up the parent interface. If an IP address is required, it can be configured using the rest of the options in the Add Interface screen.. Choose the parent interface from the
Creating a VLAN causes an interruption to network connectivity. The GUI provides a warning and an opportunity to cancel the VLAN creation.