The Network section of the web interface contains these components for viewing and configuring network settings on the FreeNAS® system:
- Global Configuration: general network settings.
- Interfaces: settings for each network interface and options to configure Bridge, Link Aggregation, and VLAN interfaces.
- IPMI: settings controlling connection to the appliance through the hardware side-band management interface if the user interface becomes unavailable.
- Static Routes: add static routes.
Each of these is described in more detail in this section.
Making changes to the network interface the web interface uses can result in losing connection to the FreeNAS® system! Misconfiguring network settings might require command line knowledge or physical access to the FreeNAS® system to fix. Be very careful when configuring Interfaces and Link Aggregations.
9.1. Global Configuration¶
Figure 9.1.1, is for general network settings that are not unique to any particular network interface., shown in
|Hostname||string||System host name. Upper and lower case alphanumeric,
|Domain||string||System domain name. The Hostname and Domain are also displayed under the iXsystems logo at the top left of the main screen.|
|Additional Domains||string||Additional space-delimited domains to search. Adding search domains can cause slow DNS lookups.|
|IPv4 Default Gateway||IP address||Typically not set. See this note about Gateways. If set, used instead of the default gateway provided by DHCP.|
|IPv6 Default Gateway||IP address||Typically not set. See this note about Gateways.|
|Nameserver 1||IP address||Primary DNS server.|
|Nameserver 2||IP address||Secondary DNS server.|
|Nameserver 3||IP address||Tertiary DNS server.|
|HTTP Proxy||string||Enter the proxy information for the network in the format http://my.proxy.server:3128 or http://user:email@example.com:3128.|
|Enable netwait feature||checkbox||If enabled, network services do not start at boot until the interface is able to ping the addresses listed in the Netwait IP list.|
|Netwait IP list||string||Only appears when Enable netwait feature is set. Enter a space-delimited list of IP addresses to ping(8). Each address is tried until one is successful or the list is exhausted. Leave empty to use the default gateway.|
|Host name database||string||Used to add one entry per line which will be appended to
When using Active Directory, set the IP address of the realm DNS server in the Nameserver 1 field.
If the network does not have a DNS server, or NFS, SSH, or FTP users are receiving “reverse DNS” or timeout errors, add an entry for the IP address of the FreeNAS® system in the Host name database field.
In many cases, a FreeNAS® configuration does not include default gateway information as a way to make it more difficult for a remote attacker to communicate with the server. While this is a reasonable precaution, such a configuration does not restrict inbound traffic from sources within the local network. However, omitting a default gateway will prevent the FreeNAS® system from communicating with DNS servers, time servers, and mail servers that are located outside of the local network. In this case, it is recommended to add Static Routes to be able to reach external DNS, NTP, and mail servers which are configured with static IP addresses. When a gateway to the Internet is added, make sure the FreeNAS® system is protected by a properly configured firewall.
shows all physical Network Interface Controllers (NICs) connected to the FreeNAS® system. These can be edited or new bridge, link aggregation, or Virtual LAN (VLAN) interfaces can be created and added to the interface list.
Be careful when configuring the network interface that controls the FreeNAS® web interface or web connectivity can be lost.
To configure a new network interface, go to ADD.and click
Each Type of configurable network interface changes the available options. Table 9.2.1 shows which settings are available with each interface type.
|Type||drop-down menu||All||Choose the type of interface. Bridge creates a logical link between multiple networks. Link Aggregation combines multiple network connections into a single interface. A virtual LAN (VLAN) partitions and isolates a segment of the connection.|
|Name||string||All||Enter a name to use for the the interface. Use the format laggX, vlanX, or bridgeX where X is a number representing a non-parent interface.|
|Description||string||All||Notes or explanatory text about this interface.|
|DHCP||checkbox||All||Enable DHCP to auto-assign an IPv4 address to this interface. Leave unset to create a static IPv4 or IPv6 configuration. Only one interface can be configured for DHCP.|
|Autoconfigure IPv6||drop-down menu||All||Automatically configure the IPv6 address with rtsol(8). Only one interface can be configured this way.|
|Disable Hardware Offloading||checkbox||All||Turn off hardware offloading for network traffic processing. WARNING: disabling hardware offloading can reduce network performance and is only recommended when the interface is managing jails, plugins, or virtual machines (VMs).|
|Bridge Members||drop-down menu||Bridge||Network interfaces to include in the bridge.|
|Lagg Protocol||drop-down menu||Link Aggregation||Select the Protocol Type. LACP is the recommended protocol if the network switch is capable of active LACP. Failover is the default protocol choice and should only be used if the network switch does not support active LACP.|
|Lagg Interfaces||drop-down menu||Link Aggregation||Select the interfaces to use in the aggregation. Warning: Lagg creation fails when the selected interfaces have manually assigned IP addresses.|
|Parent Interface||drop-down menu||VLAN||Select the VLAN Parent Interface. Usually an Ethernet card connected to a switch port configured for the VLAN. A bridge cannot be selected as a parent interface. New Link Aggregations are not available until the system is restarted.|
|Vlan Tag||integer||VLAN||The numeric tag provided by the switched network.|
|Priority Code Point||drop-down menu||VLAN||Select the Class of Service. The available 802.1p Class of Service ranges from Best effort (default) to Network control (highest).|
|MTU||integer||All||Maximum Transmission Unit, the largest protocol data unit that can be communicated. The largest workable MTU size varies with network interfaces and equipment. 1500 and 9000 are standard Ethernet MTU sizes. Leaving blank restores the field to the default value of 1500.|
|Options||string||All||Additional parameters from ifconfig(8). Separate multiple parameters with a space. For example: mtu 9000 increases the MTU for interfaces which support jumbo frames. See this note about MTU and lagg interfaces.|
|IP Address||integer and drop-down menu||All||Static IPv4 or IPv6 address and subnet mask. Example: 10.0.0.3 and /24. Click ADD to add another IP address. Clicking DELETE removes that IP Address.|
Multiple interfaces cannot be members of the same subnet. See Multiple network interfaces on a single subnet for more information. Check the subnet mask if an error is shown when setting the IP addresses on multiple interfaces.
Saving a new interface adds an entry to the list in. A new animated icon also appears in the upper-right web interface panel to show there are pending network changes.
Network changes must be confirmed before being saved to the FreeNAS® system. A new section is added above the list to confirm the new network settings. To temporarily apply the settings, click APPLY CHANGES. Temporary settings revert automatically after 60 seconds or by clicking DISCARD CHANGES. To permanently apply the new settings, click KEEP NETWORK CHANGES PERMANENTLY.
Expanding an entry in the list shows further details for that interface.
Editing an interface allows changing all the interface options except the interface Type and Name.
9.2.1. Network Bridges¶
A network bridge allows multiple network interfaces to function as a single interface.
To create a bridge, go to ADD. Choose Bridge as the Type and continue to configure the interface. See the Interface Configuration Options table for descriptions of each option.and click
bridgeX for the Name, where X is a unique
interface number. Open the Bridge Members drop-down menu and
select each interface that will be part of the bridge. Click
SAVE to add the new bridge to
and show options to confirm or revert the new network settings.
FreeNAS® uses vlan(4) to demultiplex frames with IEEE 802.1q tags. This allows nodes on different VLANs to communicate through a layer 3 switch or router. A vlan interface must be assigned a parent interface and a numeric VLAN tag. A single parent can be assigned to multiple vlan interfaces provided they have different tags.
VLAN tagging is the only 802.1q feature that is implemented. Additionally, not all Ethernet interfaces support full VLAN processing. See the HARDWARE section of vlan(4) for details.
To add a new VLAN interface, go to ADD. Choose VLAN as the Type and continue filling in the remaining fields. See the Interface Configuration Options table for descriptions of each option.and click
The parent interface of a VLAN must be up, but it can either have an IP address or be unconfigured, depending upon the requirements of the VLAN configuration. This makes it difficult for the web interface to do the right thing without trampling the configuration. To remedy this, add the VLAN interface, then select Edit for the parent interface. Enter up in the Options field and click SAVE. This brings up the parent interface. If an IP address is required, configure it using the rest of the options in the edit screen., and click (Options) and
Creating a VLAN causes an interruption to network connectivity. The web interface requires confirming the new network configuration before it is permanently applied to the FreeNAS® system.
Beginning with version 9.2.1, FreeNAS® provides a graphical screen for configuring an IPMI interface. This screen will only appear if the system hardware includes a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC).
IPMI provides side-band management if the graphical administrative interface becomes unresponsive. This allows for a few vital functions, such as checking the log, accessing the BIOS setup, and powering on the system without requiring physical access to the system. IPMI is also used to give another person remote access to the system to assist with a configuration or troubleshooting issue. Before configuring IPMI, ensure that the management interface is physically connected to the network. The IPMI device may share the primary Ethernet interface, or it may be a dedicated separate IPMI interface.
It is recommended to first ensure that the IPMI has been patched against the Remote Management Vulnerability before enabling IPMI. This article provides more information about the vulnerability and how to fix it.
Some IPMI implementations require updates to work with newer versions of Java. See PSA: Java 8 Update 131 breaks ASRock’s IPMI Virtual console for more information.
IPMI is configured from Figure 9.3.1, provides a shortcut to the most basic IPMI configuration. Those already familiar with IPMI management tools can use them instead. Table 9.3.1 summarizes the options available when configuring IPMI with the FreeNAS® web interface.. The IPMI configuration screen, shown in
|Channel||drop-down menu||Select the communications channel to use. Available channel numbers vary by hardware.|
|Password||string||Enter the password used to connect to the IPMI interface from a web browser. The maximum length accepted in the UI is 20 characters, but different hardware might require shorter passwords.|
|DHCP||checkbox||If left unset, IPv4 Address, IPv4 Netmask, and Ipv4 Default Gateway must be set.|
|IPv4 Address||string||IP address used to connect to the IPMI web interface.|
|IPv4 Netmask||drop-down menu||Subnet mask associated with the IP address.|
|IPv4 Default Gateway||string||Default gateway associated with the IP address.|
|VLAN ID||string||Enter the VLAN identifier if the IPMI out-of-band management interface is not on the same VLAN as management networking.|
|IDENTIFY LIGHT||button||Show a dialog to activate an IPMI identify light on the compatible connected hardware.|
After configuration, the IPMI interface is accessed using a web browser and the IP address specified in the configuration. The management interface prompts for a username and the configured password. Refer to the IPMI device documentation to determine the default administrative username.
After logging in to the management interface, the default administrative username can be changed, and additional users created. The appearance of the IPMI utility and the functions that are available vary depending on the hardware.
9.4. Network Summary¶
shows a quick summary of the addressing information of every configured interface. For each interface name, the configured IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, default routes, and DNS namerservers are displayed.
9.5. Static Routes¶
No static routes are defined on a default FreeNAS® system. If a static route is required to reach portions of the network, add the route by going to ADD. This is shown in Figure 9.5.1., and clicking
The available options are summarized in Table 9.5.1.
|Destination||integer||Use the format A.B.C.D/E where E is the CIDR mask.|
|Gateway||integer||Enter the IP address of the gateway.|
|Description||string||Optional. Add any notes about the route.|
Added static routes are shown in Edit and Delete buttons.. Click (Options) on a route entry to access the