The Network section of the web interface contains these components for viewing and configuring network settings on the FreeNAS® system:
- Global Configuration: general network settings.
- Interfaces: settings for each network interface.
- IPMI: settings controlling connection to the appliance through the hardware side-band management interface if the user interface becomes unavailable.
- Link Aggregations: settings for network link aggregation and link failover.
- Static Routes: add static routes.
- VLANs: configure IEEE 802.1q tagging for virtual LANs.
Each of these is described in more detail in this section.
Making changes to the network interface the web interface uses can result in losing connection to the FreeNAS® system! Misconfiguring network settings might require command line knowledge or physical access to the FreeNAS® system to fix. Be very careful when configuring Interfaces and Link Aggregations.
8.1. Global Configuration¶
Figure 8.1.1, is for general network settings that are not unique to any particular network interface., shown in
|Hostname||string||System host name. Cannot contain the underscore character.|
|Domain||string||System domain name.|
|Additional Domains||string||Additional space-delimited domains to search. Adding search domains can cause slow DNS lookups.|
|IPv4 Default Gateway||IP address||Typically not set. See this note about Gateways. If set, used instead of the default gateway provided by DHCP.|
|IPv6 Default Gateway||IP address||Typically not set. See this note about Gateways.|
|Nameserver 1||IP address||Primary DNS server.|
|Nameserver 2||IP address||Secondary DNS server.|
|Nameserver 3||IP address||Tertiary DNS server.|
|HTTP Proxy||string||Enter the proxy information for the network in the format http://my.proxy.server:3128 or http://user:firstname.lastname@example.org:3128.|
|Enable netwait feature||checkbox||If enabled, network services do not start at boot until the interface is able to ping the addresses listed in the Netwait IP list.|
|Netwait IP list||string||Only appears when Enable netwait feature is set. Enter a space-delimited list of IP addresses to ping(8). Each address is tried until one is successful or the list is exhausted. Leave empty to use the default gateway.|
|Host name database||string||Used to add one entry per line which will be appended to
When using Active Directory, set the IP address of the realm DNS server in the Nameserver 1 field.
If the network does not have a DNS server, or NFS, SSH, or FTP users are receiving “reverse DNS” or timeout errors, add an entry for the IP address of the FreeNAS® system in the Host name database field.
In many cases, a FreeNAS® configuration does not include default gateway information as a way to make it more difficult for a remote attacker to communicate with the server. While this is a reasonable precaution, such a configuration does not restrict inbound traffic from sources within the local network. However, omitting a default gateway will prevent the FreeNAS® system from communicating with DNS servers, time servers, and mail servers that are located outside of the local network. In this case, it is recommended to add Static Routes to be able to reach external DNS, NTP, and mail servers which are configured with static IP addresses. When a gateway to the Internet is added, make sure the FreeNAS® system is protected by a properly configured firewall.
shows which interfaces are manually configured and allows adding or editing a manually configured interface.
See this warning about changing the interface that the web interface uses.
Figure 8.2.1 shows the screen that appears after clicking ADD from the Interfaces page. Table 8.2.1 summarizes the configuration options shown when adding an interface or editing an existing interface.
An interface can only be added when there is a NIC that has
not already been configured. Clicking ADD when there are no
NICs available will display a message across the bottom of the screen
All interfaces are already in use..
|NIC||drop-down menu||The FreeBSD device name of the interface. This is read-only when editing an interface.|
|Interface Name||string||Description of interface.|
|DHCP||checkbox||Requires static IPv4 or IPv6 configuration if unselected. Only one interface can be configured for DHCP.|
|IPv4 Address||IP address||Enter a static IP address if DHCP is unset.|
|IPv4 Netmask||drop-down menu||Enter a netmask if DHCP is unset.|
|Auto configure IPv6||checkbox||Only one interface can be configured for this option. If unset, manual configuration is required to use IPv6.|
|IPv6 Address||IPv6 address||Must be unique on the network.|
|IPv6 Prefix Length||drop-down menu||Match the prefix used on the network.|
|Options||string||Additional parameters from ifconfig(8). Separate multiple parameters with a space. For example: mtu 9000 increases the MTU for interfaces which support jumbo frames. See this note about MTU and lagg interfaces.|
Multiple interfaces cannot be members of the same subnet. See Multiple network interfaces on a single subnet for more information. Check the subnet mask if an error is shown when setting the IP addresses on multiple interfaces.
Set only the IPv4 or IPv6 address for the new interface.
Beginning with version 9.2.1, FreeNAS® provides a graphical screen for configuring an IPMI interface. This screen will only appear if the system hardware includes a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC).
IPMI provides side-band management if the graphical administrative interface becomes unresponsive. This allows for a few vital functions, such as checking the log, accessing the BIOS setup, and powering on the system without requiring physical access to the system. IPMI is also used to give another person remote access to the system to assist with a configuration or troubleshooting issue. Before configuring IPMI, ensure that the management interface is physically connected to the network. The IPMI device may share the primary Ethernet interface, or it may be a dedicated separate IPMI interface.
It is recommended to first ensure that the IPMI has been patched against the Remote Management Vulnerability before enabling IPMI. This article provides more information about the vulnerability and how to fix it.
Some IPMI implementations require updates to work with newer versions of Java. See PSA: Java 8 Update 131 breaks ASRock’s IPMI Virtual console for more information.
IPMI is configured from Figure 8.3.1, provides a shortcut to the most basic IPMI configuration. Those already familiar with IPMI management tools can use them instead. Table 8.3.1 summarizes the options available when configuring IPMI with the FreeNAS® web interface.. The IPMI configuration screen, shown in
|Channel||drop-down menu||Select the channel to use.|
|Password||string||Enter the password used to connect to the IPMI interface from a web browser. The maximum length is 20 characters.|
|DHCP||checkbox||If left unset, IPv4 Address, IPv4 Netmask, and Ipv4 Default Gateway must be set.|
|IPv4 Address||string||IP address used to connect to the IPMI web interface.|
|IPv4 Netmask||drop-down menu||Subnet mask associated with the IP address.|
|IPv4 Default Gateway||string||Default gateway associated with the IP address.|
|VLAN ID||string||Enter the VLAN identifier if the IPMI out-of-band management interface is not on the same VLAN as management networking.|
After configuration, the IPMI interface is accessed using a web browser and the IP address specified in the configuration. The management interface prompts for a username and the configured password. Refer to the IPMI device documentation to determine the default administrative username.
After logging in to the management interface, the default administrative username can be changed, and additional users created. The appearance of the IPMI utility and the functions that are available vary depending on the hardware.
A command-line utility called ipmitool is available to control many features of the IPMI interface. See How To: Change IPMI Sensor Thresholds using ipmitool for some examples.
8.5. Static Routes¶
No static routes are defined on a default FreeNAS® system. If a static route is required to reach portions of the network, add the route by going to ADD. This is shown in Figure 8.5.1., and clicking
The available options are summarized in Table 8.5.1.
|Destination||integer||Use the format A.B.C.D/E where E is the CIDR mask.|
|Gateway||integer||Enter the IP address of the gateway.|
|Description||string||Optional. Add any notes about the route.|
Added static routes are shown in Edit and Delete buttons.. Click (Options) on a route entry to access the
FreeNAS® uses FreeBSD’s vlan(4) interface to demultiplex frames with IEEE 802.1q tags. This allows nodes on different VLANs to communicate through a layer 3 switch or router. A vlan interface must be assigned a parent interface and a numeric VLAN tag. A single parent can be assigned to multiple vlan interfaces provided they have different tags.
VLAN tagging is the only 802.1q feature that is implemented. Additionally, not all Ethernet interfaces support full VLAN processing. See the HARDWARE section of vlan(4) for details.
Go to ADD to see the screen shown in Figure 8.6.1.and click
Table 8.6.1 summarizes the configurable fields.
|Virtual Interface||string||Use the format vlanX where X is a number representing a VLAN interface not currently being used as a parent.|
|Parent Interface||drop-down menu||Usually an Ethernet card connected to a properly configured switch port. Newly created Link Aggregations do not appear in the drop-down until the system is rebooted.|
|Vlan Tag||integer||Enter a number between 1 and 4095 which matches a numeric tag set up in the switched network.|
|Description||string||Optional. Enter any notes about this VLAN.|
|Priority Code Point||drop-down menu||Available 802.1p Class of Service ranges from Best Effort (default) to Network Control (highest).|
The parent interface of a VLAN must be up, but it can either have an IP address or be unconfigured, depending upon the requirements of the VLAN configuration. This makes it difficult for the web interface to do the right thing without trampling the configuration. To remedy this, add the VLAN, then select ADD. Choose the parent interface from the NIC drop-down menu and in the Options field, type up. This brings up the parent interface. If an IP address is required, configure it using the rest of the options in the ADD screen., and click
Creating a VLAN causes an interruption to network connectivity. The web interface provides a warning about this interruption.