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NFS Performance Numbers (I need more speed)!

HeloJunkie

FreeNAS Experienced
Joined
Oct 15, 2014
Messages
271
OK, so I have a new server setup (specs below) and I have been reading up on tuning NFS performance and the various things to look for, but I am not sure I have everything running as it should based on my performance tests.

My FreeNAS system specs are:

Supermicro Superserver 5028R-E1CR12L
Supermicro X10SRH-CLN4F Motherboard
1 x Intel Xeon E5-2640 V3 8 Core 2.66GHz
4 x 16GB PC4-17000 DDR4 2133Mhz Registered ECC
12 x 4TB HGST HDN724040AL 7200RPM NAS SATA Hard Drives
LSI3008 SAS Controller - Flashed to IT Mode
LSI SAS3x28 SAS Expander
Dual 920 Watt Platinum Power Supplies
16GB USB3 Thumb Drive for booting
FreeNAS-9.3-STABLE-201504152200



I am running a plex media server (named Cinaplex) and FreeNAS as the backend storage (named Plexnas). I do not do a lot of writes to the NAS, but I have a fair amount of reads from the NAS to the Plex server. I installed Intel 10G cards in both servers and tested the network performance between the two boxes with iperf. Here is what it looks like:

From Cinaplex to Plexnas (RX on Plexnas ix0 graph)
Code:
[root@plexnas] ~# iperf -s
------------------------------------------------------------
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 64.0 KByte (default)
------------------------------------------------------------
[  5] local 10.0.7.2 port 5001 connected with 10.0.7.1 port 56303
[  5]  0.0-600.0 sec   658 GBytes  9.41 Gbits/sec


From Plexnas to Cinaplex (TX on Plexnas ix0 graph)

Code:
root@cinaplex:~# iperf -s
------------------------------------------------------------
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 85.3 KByte (default)
------------------------------------------------------------
[  4] local 10.0.7.1 port 5001 connected with 10.0.7.2 port 53892
[ ID] Interval       Transfer     Bandwidth
[  4]  0.0-600.0 sec   442 GBytes  6.33 Gbits/sec


Here is the freenas network graph for those tests:

plexnas-iperf-ix0.png


From this test it would appear that I was able to saturate the 10G connection while sending data to Plexnas (writing) but not while receiving data from Plexnas (reading). Since this is a back-to-back connection with a brand new CAT6 crossover cable and no switch in the middle, I am going to assume that it is something to do with the networking stack on one of the two boxes. I left the test go for 600 seconds just to make sure enough data was pushed to get an accurate baseline for further testing. In either case, I was quite satisfied with 9.41 Gbits/sec and 6.33 Gbits/sec and that will give me something else to run down later!

So next I created a zpool on cinaplex. My goal is to get as much storage space with the amount of redundancy that I am comfortable with on that box. For me, this is RAIDZ2:


Code:
[root@plexnas] /mnt# zpool status vol1
  pool: vol1
state: ONLINE
  scan: none requested
config:

        NAME                                            STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        vol1                                            ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz2-0                                      ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/301970bc-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/32289886-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/34f92d09-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/37c5d75e-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/3a908f47-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/3d4afb4b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/40185130-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/42c90f8b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/457ebda1-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/48469a1c-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/4afee10b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/4dc3664d-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc  ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors



Once I had that all set up, I ran a couple of quick tests with compression turned off:

Code:
root@plexnas] /mnt/vol1/media# zfs get compression vol1
NAME  PROPERTY     VALUE     SOURCE
vol1  compression  off       local



Write Test:
Code:
[root@plexnas] ~# dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/vol1/media/testfile.2 bs=64M count=5000
5000+0 records in
5000+0 records out
335544320000 bytes transferred in 314.225651 secs (1067845094 bytes/sec)



[root@plexnas] /# zpool iostat -v 10
                                           capacity     operations    bandwidth
pool                                    alloc   free   read  write   read  write
--------------------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----
freenas-boot                             947M  13.5G      0      0  1.60K      0
  gptid/c17b7e0c-ebb8-11e4-a5f8-0cc47a31abcc   947M  13.5G      0      0  1.60K      0
--------------------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----
vol1                                    14.0T  29.5T      0  8.72K      0  1.07G
  raidz2                                14.0T  29.5T      0  8.72K      0  1.07G
    gptid/301970bc-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0    998      0   120M
    gptid/32289886-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0    992      0   120M
    gptid/34f92d09-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0    991      0   120M
    gptid/37c5d75e-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0    991      0   119M
    gptid/3a908f47-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0    998      0   121M
    gptid/3d4afb4b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0    993      0   120M
    gptid/40185130-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0   1007      0   121M
    gptid/42c90f8b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0    992      0   120M
    gptid/457ebda1-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0    994      0   120M
    gptid/48469a1c-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0    999      0   121M
    gptid/4afee10b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0    996      0   121M
    gptid/4dc3664d-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0    997      0   121M
--------------------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----


The write test looked pretty good. All of the drives appear to be running just slightly slower than their rated capacity when doing a dd to each one directly. No surprises here.

Next I did the same for the read test:

Read Test:
Code:
[root@plexnas] ~# dd if=/mnt/vol1/media/testfile.2 of=/dev/zero bs=64M count=5000
5000+0 records in
5000+0 records out
335544320000 bytes transferred in 260.324612 secs (1288945819 bytes/sec)


[root@plexnas] /# zpool iostat -v 10
                                           capacity     operations    bandwidth
pool                                    alloc   free   read  write   read  write
--------------------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----
freenas-boot                             946M  13.5G      0      0  1.60K      0
  gptid/c17b7e0c-ebb8-11e4-a5f8-0cc47a31abcc   946M  13.5G      0      0  1.60K      0
--------------------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----
vol1                                    14.4T  29.1T  9.92K     13  1.24G  70.0K
  raidz2                                14.4T  29.1T  9.92K     13  1.24G  70.0K
    gptid/301970bc-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -  1.25K      2   127M  17.6K
    gptid/32289886-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -  1.28K      2   139M  16.0K
    gptid/34f92d09-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -  1.20K      2   131M  16.0K
    gptid/37c5d75e-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -  1.24K      2   130M  19.2K
    gptid/3a908f47-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -  1.18K      2   139M  18.4K
    gptid/3d4afb4b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -  1.24K      2   129M  18.4K
    gptid/40185130-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -  1.26K      2   127M  17.2K
    gptid/42c90f8b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -  1.23K      2   139M  14.8K
    gptid/457ebda1-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -  1.22K      2   131M  14.8K
    gptid/48469a1c-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -  1.25K      2   130M  17.6K
    gptid/4afee10b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -  1.29K      2   139M  15.2K
    gptid/4dc3664d-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -  1.27K      2   128M  15.2K
--------------------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----


Again, it looks great. The read test was better than the write test and all drives appear to be running right up there where they should be.

I am feeling pretty darn good about the box, everything looked like it was going to be able to rock my 10G connection.

The next step was to configure the NFS:

Output of nfsstat -m on Cinaplex:
Code:
root@cinaplex:~/# nfsstat -m
/mount/plexnas_media from plexnas:/mnt/vol1/media
 Flags: rw,relatime,vers=3,rsize=65536,wsize=65536,namlen=255,hard,proto=tcp,timeo=600,retrans=2,sec=sys,mountaddr=10.0.7.2,mountvers=3,mountport=921,mountproto=udp,local_lock=none,addr=10.0.7.2


fstab entry on Cinaplex:
Code:
plexnas:/mnt/vol1/media /mount/plexnas_media nfs


As you can see, I used the defaults for nfs on the Ubuntu box.

Now I was ready for the "across the network" tests:

Write test from Cinaplex to Plexnas via 10G connection:
Code:
root@cinaplex:/mount# dd if=/dev/zero of=/mount/plexnas_media/test.file
1053283529+0 records in
1053283529+0 records out
539281166848 bytes (539 GB) copied, 1127.58 s, 478 MB/s


hummmm.....since I know that the pool can write very fast (7.8 Gbits/sec) (based on my earlier write test), and my 10G network can carry 9.41 Gbits/sec (again based on my iperf test earlier) I was very dismayed to see that I was not get anywhere near my 9.41 Gbits/sec that iperf was showing or even the almost 8 Gbits/sec that I saw on my local dd test.

Well, on to the read test....

Read test from Plexnas to Cinaplex via 10G connection:
Code:
root@cinaplex:/mount# dd if=/mount/plexnas_media/test.file of=/dev/null
1053283529+0 records in
1053283529+0 records out
539281166848 bytes (539 GB) copied, 2077.21 s, 260 MB/s


The very first thing I noticed is that my read speeds from the nas was almost 1/2 of my write!! I know that there is a read limitation based on the IOPS of a single drive per vdev, but I did not think it would be this bad. In fact, I thought I should have seen this limitation earlier when doing my first run of tests. It should not matter if the test was run locally or across the network, the pool should perform the same regardless unless the problem is network related.

I mean, woe is me, I am only able to saturate two full gig links, but nowhere near (again) the capability of the 10G connection between the two boxes!

So now I needed to do some more digging and so I ran the zpool iostat while doing the transfers again:

Code:
[root@plexnas] /# zpool iostat -v 10
                                           capacity     operations    bandwidth
pool                                    alloc   free   read  write   read  write
--------------------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----
vol1                                    14.4T  29.1T      0  5.60K      0   680M
  raidz2                                14.4T  29.1T      0  5.60K      0   680M
    gptid/301970bc-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0  2.50K      0  71.5M
    gptid/32289886-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0  2.39K      0  73.1M
    gptid/34f92d09-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0  2.21K      0  69.2M
    gptid/37c5d75e-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0  2.34K      0  71.6M
    gptid/3a908f47-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0  2.29K      0  71.3M
    gptid/3d4afb4b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0  2.48K      0  71.5M
    gptid/40185130-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0  2.56K      0  73.0M
    gptid/42c90f8b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0  2.34K      0  72.0M
    gptid/457ebda1-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0  2.27K      0  70.0M
    gptid/48469a1c-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0  2.29K      0  70.9M
    gptid/4afee10b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0  2.23K      0  70.5M
    gptid/4dc3664d-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -      0  2.54K      0  72.8M
--------------------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----


I did the same thing for the read test:

Code:
[root@plexnas] /# zpool iostat -v 10
                                           capacity     operations    bandwidth
pool                                    alloc   free   read  write   read  write
--------------------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----
vol1                                    14.3T  29.2T  1.83K     28   233M   158K
  raidz2                                14.3T  29.2T  1.83K     28   233M   158K
    gptid/301970bc-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -    248      6  24.3M  39.2K
    gptid/32289886-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -    266      5  25.2M  36.0K
    gptid/34f92d09-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -    275      5  23.2M  34.4K
    gptid/37c5d75e-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -    274      6  23.4M  37.6K
    gptid/3a908f47-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -    256      5  25.4M  35.6K
    gptid/3d4afb4b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -    243      5  24.2M  34.4K
    gptid/40185130-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -    249      6  24.2M  37.6K
    gptid/42c90f8b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -    264      5  25.2M  34.0K
    gptid/457ebda1-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -    275      5  23.2M  32.8K
    gptid/48469a1c-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -    273      6  23.5M  37.6K
    gptid/4afee10b-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -    256      5  25.4M  35.2K
    gptid/4dc3664d-ebbe-11e4-a956-0cc47a31abcc      -      -    244      5  24.2M  35.2K
--------------------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----



plexnas_ix0_stats.png


So right off the bat I can see a huge decrease in the operation and bandwidth. This has me puzzled since I have tested each individual piece of the puzzle before putting them all together. The total in this case is not the sum of the parts.

Since I am able to test the network with iperf, and I am able to test the pool locally both reading and writing to it and all of that looks good, I am left with just the nfs piece that is the unknown here.

There really was no way to test just the nfs part, I used the defaults and read up on tuning it, but the takeaway that I got was - use the defaults!

So I guess my question is this: can I tune nfs further to try and get better performance, or have I hit some type of limitation in nfs to support great speeds. Or did I screw up or misinterpret some of the tests that I ran and the 2G limit on read and 4.5G limit on writes is the best I am going to get with the configuration that I currently have....?
 

cyberjock

Moderator
Joined
Mar 25, 2012
Messages
19,148
Well:

1. Intel NICs are cheap. They are pretty reliable, but you won't really be able to saturate 10Gb no matter how hard you try. I can't say I'm surprised with the iperf results since you are using Intel. I'm using Intel and I don't get straight saturation either. So I'd call those tests 'good for Intel 10Gb on FreeBSD'.

2. The NFS is about what I'd expect for a 12 disk RAIDZ2. You shouldn't be going that wide. I keep telling people not to do more than 10 disks in a RAIDZ2, and people still give out that bad advice. You go too wide and you will bottleneck in other ways because you are so wide. If you redo the pool with 2 vdevs of 6 disks in a RAIDZ2 I bet you'll find your write speeds are much better. Your read speeds are fine because ZFS has great prefetching. But if you start trying to do multiple simultaneous streams that are high throughput (aka not watching a few movies) you'll find yourself unable to even maintain 150MB/sec combined.

Don't expect to do more than about 500MB/sec over NFS from a single client to/from your server no matter what you do. You just won't. If you had Chelsio cards, you might get to 800MB/sec, if you redo your pool and have an adequately built system. Don't try CIFS, it won't do better than NFS. Can't win with that one either. I tried. ;)

If I were you I'd go with 2 vdevs and keep everything else at defaults. If possible, I'd ditch that LSI card. I don't have faith in them yet.

Please keep in mind:

1. I am using 10Gb at home.
2. I have used (but am not currently using because of my employment) Intel NICs for my home.
3. I have built an overly wide pool "just to see if it sucks" and I can tell you that it does. And we're not talking about the good kind of sucking either.
 

HeloJunkie

FreeNAS Experienced
Joined
Oct 15, 2014
Messages
271
@cyberjock - Thanks for the input. I'll do 6 drive vdevs and give that a try!
 

mav@

FreeNAS Guru
iXsystems
Joined
Sep 29, 2011
Messages
1,011
In your remote dd tests you are not specifying block size. Dividing number of bytes by number of records it seem that resulting records are 512 byte. It can bee inefficient if NFS client decide to execute those 512-byte requests as such. Try to specify bs=1M there.

As another point to test: just after the last FreeNAS update its NFS server got support for 128KB r-/wsize. You may try to update your FreeNAS server to latest nightly and see whether it change something. Check `nfsstat -m` whether client see/use it.
 

HeloJunkie

FreeNAS Experienced
Joined
Oct 15, 2014
Messages
271
mav -

Thanks

I did try with several different block sizes all the way up to 64M, there were slight changes to the transfer rates, but nothing significant!
 

cyberjock

Moderator
Joined
Mar 25, 2012
Messages
19,148
mav -

Thanks

I did try with several different block sizes all the way up to 64M, there were slight changes to the transfer rates, but nothing significant!
That's what I've seen too. That's why I didn't mention trying different block sizes. Even for using NFS block sizes, the default (32KB I believe in FreeBSD 9.3) performs very well. Unless you manually set the rsize and wsize on your NFS client to force something like 2KB (or any other value that is absurdly small), block sizes really don't matter that much when writing to NFS shares.
 

tycoonbob

Newbie
Joined
Nov 14, 2014
Messages
23
@cyberjock, You mention Chelsio cards. I've never heard of them before, but I have used tons of Intel GbE NIC's and a few Intel 10GbE NIC's. Did I read correctly that you think Chelsio cards give better performance than Intel?

I'm looking at the Chelsio T420 (dual 10GbE RJ45) which are around $150-200 on eBay. Have you used RJ45 Chelsio cards, or just SFP+ cards? I'm looking at using the new Supermicro Xeon-D as a hypervisor board (CentOS 7 + KVM + Kimchi), and was thinking about doing 10GbE with my FreeNAS (or other) storage box, along with NetGear's SMB 10GbE switches. Any specific feedback on the Chelsio RJ45 10GbE cards?

Sorry OP, for threadjacking. ;)

EDIT: Err, I was looking at the wrong card on eBay. Their SFP+ cards are in the sub-$200 range, but their ethernet 10GbE cards are quite a bit more, but still...I'm curious about them.
 

cyberjock

Moderator
Joined
Mar 25, 2012
Messages
19,148
The T420 is the prior-gen card. They are very good and should be very reliable and perform very well. I've found that twinax is the best media to use, but for long distances fiber is the obvious choice. I'm no fan of the RJ45 10Gb. Seems to be too many cables that can't do 10Gb despite being CAT6 and allegedly being able to do 10Gb.

Give this a read: https://forums.freenas.org/index.php?threads/10-gig-networking-primer.25749/
 

NAStard

Newbie
Joined
Aug 30, 2015
Messages
25
I'll do 6 drive vdevs and give that a try!
Please let us know the results after re-arranging the vdevs. :)

Your thread has excellent info.
Thank you for sharing examples of evaluating performance of isolated sub-systems.

Cheers!
:D
 

Spearfoot

He of the long foot
Moderator
Joined
May 13, 2015
Messages
1,967

NAStard

Newbie
Joined
Aug 30, 2015
Messages
25
Ahh... the theory and general best practices. :) I can work with this!
Thank you so much for your thoughtful placement of this info.

Cheers,
:D
 

Alan Latteri

Newbie
Joined
Sep 25, 2015
Messages
16
LSI3008 SAS Controller - Flashed to IT Mode
LSI SAS3x28 SAS Expander
I too have an LSI3008 based card. The Dell Perc H330 in a PowerEdge T630. I too am having ****ty read speeds over NFS, yet the DDs are all really good. My config is 2 x 9wide RaidZ2. Also tried 3 x 6wide RaidZ1.
 
Last edited:

viniciusferrao

FreeNAS Experienced
Joined
Mar 30, 2013
Messages
145
I too have an LSI3008 based card. The Dell Perc H330 in a PowerEdge T630. I too am having ****ty read speeds over NFS, yet the DDs are all really good. My config is 2 x 9wide RaidZ2. Also tried 3 x 6wide RaidZ1.
Are you running the PERC H330 on IT MODE?
 

Alan Latteri

Newbie
Joined
Sep 25, 2015
Messages
16
It is set to HBA mode in the BIOS. I have not flashed it to a specific IT firmware. Still on official Dell stock.
 

viniciusferrao

FreeNAS Experienced
Joined
Mar 30, 2013
Messages
145
It is set to HBA mode in the BIOS. I have not flashed it to a specific IT firmware. Still on official Dell stock.
Hm, that's no the way it should work. I'm with the same card and having difficulties to cross flash it to the LSI 9300 Firmware. DELL even has a firmware for IT mode, like here: http://www.dell.com/support/home/us/en/19/Drivers/DriversDetails?driverId=XKWP8

But at this moment I haven't any success cross flashing it. And I don't even know if this is the right firmware. It appears to be.
 

Alan Latteri

Newbie
Joined
Sep 25, 2015
Messages
16
That is the way it should work. You can choose to have the card in Raid mode or HBA mode. It is built in. That firmware is for a different card.
 

Alan Latteri

Newbie
Joined
Sep 25, 2015
Messages
16
Also, current FreeNAS has bad drivers for this generation of card. Even the nightlies are ****ed up. I eventually switched to CentOS 7 which dell providers drivers for. Maybe FreeNAS 10 will be different.
 

viniciusferrao

FreeNAS Experienced
Joined
Mar 30, 2013
Messages
145
That is the way it should work. You can choose to have the card in Raid mode or HBA mode. It is built in. That firmware is for a different card.
I don't know.

How the devices are presented on your system with the PERC H330 card? They appear as /dev/da0,1,2... or the appear as /dev/mfisyspd0,1,2?
 

Alan Latteri

Newbie
Joined
Sep 25, 2015
Messages
16
in FreeNAS9, using the mfi driver which is old. Using MR driver they were dropping out all the time. On CentOS7 they present as /dev/sd using a recent MR-SAS driver from dell.
 
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